Review of Professional Management
issue front

Preksha Dassani1, Vijaya Kittu Manda2 and Deepak3

First Published 7 Jul 2022.
Article Information Volume 20, Issue 1 June 2022
Corresponding Author:

Preksha Dassani, Independent Researcher, New Delhi, India.

1 Independent Researcher, New Delhi, India

2 GIM, GITAM Deemed to be University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

3 Zakir Husain Centre for Educational Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed


The cognitive dissonance theory, formulated by Psychologist Leon Festinger, revealed that inconsistency in beliefs or behaviour among individuals causes psychological tension or dissonance due to exposure to new information. Investor behaviour is prone to several biases that refrains them from making rational decisions. They often reluctantly stick to their original decision even though it is costly. An online and offline survey using a structured questionnaire was used and data was collected from 250 stock market investors of Visakhapatnam, India. With the use of mean and one-way ANOVA - the relationship between independent variable (income, investment amount, education qualification, age, gender and investor experience) and dependent variables (cognitive dissonance) - it was revealed that investors were prone to cognitive dissonance bias. The research shows that cognitive dissonance bias causes investors to make sub-optimal choices. Based on the findings, recommendations were put forth to help investors mitigate their susceptibility to cognitive dissonance bias.


Behavioural finance, irrational, cognitive dissonance, bias, financial literacy


Agarwal, N. (2020). Zerodha founder explains how new retail investors are picking stocks during Covid. LiveMint. zerodha-founder-explains-how-new-investors-are-picking-stocks-during-covid- 11594706811941.html

Antoniou, C., Doukas, J. A., & Subrahmanyam, A. (2013). Cognitive dissonance, sentiment, and momentum. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 48(1), 245?275.

Barber, B. M., & Odean, T. (2001). Online investors: Do the slow die first? Review of Financial Studies, 15(2), 456?489.

Bernard, D., Cade, N., & Hodge, F. (2018). Investor behavior and the benefits of direct stock ownership. Journal of Accounting Research, 56(2), 431?266.

Chang, T. Y., Solomon, D. H., & Westerfield, M. M. (2016). Looking for someone to blame: Delegation, cognitive dissonance, and the disposition effect. The Journal of Finance, 71(1), 267?302.

Gilchrist, K. (2020). India?s millennials are driving a surge in stock trading during the pandemic. a-surge-in-stock-trading-during-covid.html

Kapoor, S., & Prosad, J. M. (2017). Behavioural finance: A review. Procedia Computer Science, 122, 50?54.

Nair, D. R., & Antony, A. (2015). Evolutions and challenges of behavioral finance. International Journal of Science and Research, 4(3), 1055?1059.

Olsen, R. A. (2008). Cognitive dissonance: The problem facing behavioral finance. Journal of Behavioral Finance, 9(1), 1?4.

Pompian, M. M. (2006). Behavioral finance and wealth management how to build optimal portfolios that account for investor biases.

Shahani, R., & Gupta, M. (2019). Empirical investigation of application of concept of cognitive dissonance to Indian financial markets.

Singh, S., & Bahl, S. (2016). Behavioural finance. Vikas Publishing House.

Suls, J. (2020). Cognitive dissonance of Leon Festinger. Britannica.

Wood, R., & Zaichkowsky, J. L. (2004). Attitudes and trading behavior of stock market investors: A segmentation approach. Journal of Behavioral Finance, 5(3), 170?179.


Make a Submission Order a Print Copy