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Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Among the Teachers Working in Various Arts and Science Colleges in the Kanchipuram District
1Department of Commerce, Pachaiyappa’s College for Women, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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The behaviour of employees in an organisation can be of two types, namely defined role behaviour and extra role behaviour. Defined role behaviour means performing as per their official duties and rights, whereas extra role behaviour means doing something beyond their official work, out of their own interest without expecting any benefit in return. This means they will neither get recognition nor any monetary benefit for such behaviour. This kind of extra role behaviour is called organisational citizenship behaviour. Many of the researches have proved that this kind of behaviour of employees help the organisation achieve its objectives and maintain healthy organisational climate. Much research has been done on the determinants of organisational citizenship behaviour. This study is being carried out with the aim of finding out the relationship of emotional intelligence and the organisational citizenship behaviour among the college teachers working in arts and science stream. A total of 288 teachers working in various aided colleges, government colleges, self-financing colleges and deemed-to-be universities offering arts and science stream at Kancheepuram district have been chosen for the study. Self-assessment report of emotional intelligence based on Daniel Goleman’s mixed model and organisational citizenship behaviour based on the concept of Podsakoff have been adapted in this study. Statistical tools used in this study are correlation, one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression. This study has divulged a moderate positive relationship among the various dimensions of emotional intelligence and the organisational citizenship behaviour. It is also perceived that emotional intelligence dictates 41% variance of organisational citizenship behaviour among the college teachers.
Organisational citizenship behaviour, emotional intelligence, college teachers
Teachers are the real sculptors of the younger generation. Education sector’s efficiency and effectiveness are being influenced by the behaviour of the teachers at their institutions. Their level of emotional intelligence and their attitude to discretionary behaviour determines their level of performance and their success in the teaching profession. This empirical analysis is being conducted to explore the relationship between organisational citizenship behaviour and emotional intelligence of college teachers working in the arts and science stream.
Organisational Citizenship Behavior
Dennis Organ is considered the father of organisational citizenship behaviour, who coined this concept in the 1980s. Katz had laid the foundation for this concept in the year 1964 and identified three types of behaviour of workers for the efficient functioning of an organisation. One among them is the innovative and spontaneous activity of employees in realising the objectives of an organisation which go beyond the role specifications (Katz, 1964). Organ’s concept of organisational citizenship behaviour was emanated from Katz’s thought.
A formative definition was given by Organ in the year 1988. He elucidated the organisational citizenship behaviour as ‘individual behaviour that is discretionary, not explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization’ (1988, p. 4). However, over the period, the definition took subtle revisions as conceived by different authors. The five dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour—altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship—as it is formulated by Organ (1988), are the most used classifications in the research.
Altruism indicates the helping behaviour of employees in the workplace (Smith et al., 1983). Courtesy is being defined as a kind of discretionary behaviour that aims to avoid conflict in the workplace (Law et al., 2005). Civic virtue is comprised of a set of behaviour that explains the concern and interest of employees towards their organisation (Law et al., 2005). Conscientiousness is characterised by the behaviour of employees which goes well beyond their official requirements (Law et al., 2005). According to Organ et al. (2006) sportsmanship is the ability of an employee to tolerate changes that take place in their organisation whether they like or agrees with it or not. Organisational citizenship behaviour is proved to be serving for betterment of an organisation and its employees as well (Hazzi, 2018). Professional and organisational commitment are found to be significantly related with organisational citizenship behaviour (ÖZDEM, 2012).
The cognitive intelligence of an individual alone will not help achieve success in their profession. There are multiple intelligences, as it is discussed by Gardner (1983), each of which determines success on a personal and professional front. John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey (1997) have conceived an idea of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is a set of skills that help the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan and achieve in one’s life (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).
However, the term got popularised by internationally reputed psychologist Daniel Goleman in the year 1995 after the publication of his book titled Emotional Intelligence; Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Emotional intelligence is being considered and defined as the ability to perceive emotions accurately, generate feelings when they facilitate thought, the ability to understand emotions, and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).
According to Goleman (1995), emotional intelligence is comprised of social and personal competencies that lead to effective leadership performance. Goleman’s emotional intelligence is considered a mixed model, that is, emotional intelligence is both an ability and a trait. Emotional intelligence is conceptualised as a trait of an individual which relates to self-perception of their emotional abilities (Petrides & Furnham, 2000).
Emotional intelligence dimensions, as conceptualised by Goleman, are self-awareness, social awareness, self-management and relationship management (Goleman et al., 2002, p. 39). Self-awareness and self-management are considered personal competencies, whereas social awareness and relationship management are considered social competencies. Self-awareness is related to the competencies of awareness of their own emotions, assessing their emotions and self-confidence. Self-management is a personal competence to regulate one’s own emotions and acts flexibly to achieve the desired result (Goleman et al., 2002). Social awareness is one of the social competencies to understand the emotional state of others and understand what others are going through and listen to them (Goleman et al., 2002). Relationship management is a social competence of an individual which helps them get along well with others and handle any conflicts, sharing of his ideas and show empathy towards others (Goleman et al., 2002).
Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
The aim of this study is to find out how emotional intelligence determines the level of organisational citizenship behaviour among college teachers. When a high level of organisational citizenship behaviour is put together with a high level of emotional intelligence at the workplace by the employees, it enhances their productivity which, in turn, leads to enhanced organisational performance (Sharma & Mahajan, 2017). Emotional intelligence has the strongest relationship with organisational citizenship behaviour (Turnipseed & Vandewaa, 2012). The two dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour, namely altruism and conscientiousness of subordinates, are being predicted by the emotional intelligence level of leaders (Yaghoubi et al., 2011). The demographic profile such as age and gender were found to have a strong relationship with various dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour (Narayanan, 2016).
Although some of the studies had focused on the relationship between organisational citizenship behaviour and emotional intelligence, only very a few studies had been found in education literature. Therefore, this study focuses on the organisational citizenship behaviour among the college teachers, and their level of emotional intelligence.
Aim of the Research
Exploring the relationship between organisational citizenship behaviour and emotional intelligence among college teachers working in the arts and science stream in the Kanchipuram district is the main aim of the research. This study has been carried out keeping in mind the following objectives:
This study is to scrutinize the relationship between organisational citizenship behaviour and the emotional intelligence of college teachers working in the arts and science stream in the Kanchipuram district.
Population and Sample
College teachers working in arts and science streams in the Kanchipuram district are the population for this study. Data has been collected from 288 college teachers: 29 teachers are from government colleges, 130 teachers are from self-financing colleges, 99 teachers are from aided colleges and 30 teachers are from deemed-to-be universities. The demographic profile of the respondents has been presented in Table 1.
It is being divulged by Table 1 that 77.40% of the respondents are female and 65% are male; 46.5% of the respondents belong to the age group of 35–45 years whereas only 3.8% respondents are below the age group of 25 years. Out of the total respondents, 88.90% are married and 11.10% are unmarried. As far as the educational level is concerned, 4.50% are post-graduates, 43.40% are post-graduates with MPhil and 52.10% are PhD holders. Of the total respondents, 66% have chosen this profession out of their passion while 11.5% of the respondents alone have chosen this profession by chance. About 37.50% of the respondents have completed their higher studies in urban area followed by 33.70% at metropolitan cities and 28.80% in semi-urban area.
Table 1. Profile of the College Teachers Who Participated in the Study
Notes: N = 288; n = frequency for each category.
As far as work profile is concerned, 49% of the respondents have been placed in permanent positions and 48.3% in temporary positions. The respondents’ group is comprised of associate professors (11.50%), assistant professors (82.30%), principal (1.40%) and lecturers (4.90%). Out of total respondents, 45.10% are working in self-financing colleges and 34.40% in aided colleges; 10.10% of the respondents are government college teachers while 10.40% are from deemed to be universities. About 18.10% of the respondents are with less than 5 years of experience while 8% are with above 30 years of experience. Of all the respondents, 26.70% are having professional experience between 10 years and 15 years; 18.80% are having 5–10 years of experience. Only 5.60% have experience of about 25–30 years. About 45.50% of the respondents are drawing less than `25,000 per month whereas, 8.7% are drawing more than `100,000 per month.
Tools Applied for Data Collection
Emotional intelligence scale, as formulated by Goleman (2000), and organisational citizenship behaviour measuring scale, formulated by Farh et al. (1990) based on Organ’s five dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour, have been adapted in this study. Five points Likert scale has been used to assess the self-report questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient has been calculated as 0.83 for the scale of organisational citizenship behaviour and 0.79 for the emotional intelligence scale.
The analysis of data is done by using the statistical analysis software SPSS 23. The first objective is to perceive whether type of institution makes any notable difference in the level of organisational citizenship behaviour. To analyse the variances among the four types of the institutions, one-way ANOVA has been conducted.
The second objective is to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence quadrants and organisational citizenship behaviour. For this, the Pearson correlation analysis has been done. Correlation coefficients values between 0.70 and 1.00 are considered as ‘high’, between 0.69 and 0.30 are considered as ‘medium’ and 0.29 and below are as ‘low’. The values closer to 0.00 were considered to be irrelevant (Büyüköztürk, 2005).
The third objective is to scrutinise the predictive power of the dimensions of emotional intelligence. The multiple linear regression analysis has been done for this scrutiny.
Difference in the Level of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Across Types of Institutions
The ANOVA test reveals that organisational citizenship behaviour of the faculty members differ significantly based on their institution type (F3,284 = 5.034, p .001).
The test of homogeneity variance explains that the equal variance is not assumed, that is, the Levene’s statistics is found to be significant. Therefore, Dunnett’s T3 post-hoc test has been selected to check the individual difference between the institutions. The post-hoc result reveals that the mean score of self-financing colleges (M = 4.42, SD = 0.610) differs significantly with from that of deemed-to-be universities (M = 4.80, SD = 0.407).
Likewise, the mean score of aided colleges (M = 4.46, SD = 0.570) differs significantly from that of deemed-to-be universities (M = 4.80, SD = 0.407). The level of significance for such mean differences is at 0.05 level.
However, no significant differences were found between the mean score of government colleges with the remaining institutions of aided colleges, self-financing colleges and deemed-to-be universities. Table 2 portrays the outcome of one-way ANOVA.
Table 2. Results: One-Way ANOVA
Correlation Between Various Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence with Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
To determine the relationship between various dimensions of emotional intelli-gence and organisational citizenship behaviour, the Pearson correlation coefficient has been computed.
Correlation is a statistical tool which is applied to measure the relationship of two continuous variables. The coefficient of correlation explains not only the relationship between the variables taken for study but also indicates the strength of such a relationship along with its direction. If the correlation coefficient is closer to +1 or 1, the relationship between the variables will be considered as strong and, at the same time, the sign will indicate whether such a relationship is positive or negative.
Table 3 shows the correlation among the quadrants of emotional intelligence with organisational citizenship behaviour. All the dimensions of emotional intelligence are showing a positive moderate correlation with organisational citizenship behaviour.
Table 3. Mean, SD and Correlation Matrix
Note: *Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
A moderate positive statistically significant correlation (r = .61, p < .001) is found between relationship management and organisational citizenship behaviour. A positive moderate correlation exists between self-awareness and organisational citizenship behaviour (r = .43, p < .001). The correlation between self-management is found to be moderate positive with organisational citizenship behaviour (r = .48, p < .001) and moderate positive with social awareness and organisational citizenship behaviour (r = .48, p < .001).
Prediction of the Level of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour by Emotional Intelligence
Multiple regression analysis has been done to determine the predictive power of various dimensions of emotional intelligence. Table 4 depicts the results of multiple regression analysis.
Table 4. Results of Multiple Regression Analysis
The analysis reveals a statistically significant moderate correlation between various dimensions of emotional intelligence with organisational citizenship behaviour (r = .647, p < .001). The four dimensions of emotional intelligence explain 41% variance in organisational citizenship behaviour.
Based on the value of the standardised coefficient (beta), it is ascertained that relationship management is found to be the most important predictor of organisational citizenship behaviour, followed by social awareness. This can also be interpreted as higher the social competence among the faculty members, the more will be the organisational citizenship behaviour. The t-test result also proves that relationship management along with social awareness were found to be sound predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour of the faculty members. Regression equation can be formulated based on the value of unstandardised coefficient value as follows:
Where, OCB means organisational citizenship behaviour, SA indicates self-awareness, SM indicates self-management, SOA indicates social awareness, and RM indicates relationship management.
The regression model is found to be good with R = 0.647, R2 = 0.418 and F (4,279) = 50.104 p = .000.
A correlation study has been conducted to find out the relationship between various dimensions of emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour. One such dimension of emotional intelligence, called relationship management, is statistically and significantly related with organisational citizenship behaviour and, at the same time, the remaining sub-dimensions are also found to have moderate positive relationship with organisational citizenship behaviour. In a study conducted among the bank employees (Rezaei et al., 2014), all the four dimensions of emotional intelligence were found to be positively and significantly correlated with organisational citizenship behaviour. On the contrary, no significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour among executives of small enterprise sector (Chin et al., 2009).
Multiple regression analysis was done to discern the sound predictor of organisational citizenship behaviour which revealed relationship management as a strong predictor, and all the four dimensions of emotional intelligence were found to be contributing 41% to the level of organisational citizenship behaviour. The social competencies were found to be high among the faculty members who possessed high level of organisational citizenship behaviour.
The findings of the present study reveal that faculty members who are highly emotionally intelligent are also having a high level of organisational citizenship behaviour. Emotional intelligence helps an individual perform better organisational citizenship behaviour (Hasidim, 1998). Their social competency skill helps them to be good at their level of organisational citizenship behaviour.
To improve organisational citizenship behaviour in educational institutions, the level of emotional intelligence among the faculty members is to be increased, for which the institutions can arrange for training and development.
Limitations of the Study
The faculty members of arts and science colleges were chosen for the study. So, this study is limited to their opinions only. The location of the study was also confined to arts and science colleges in Kancheepuram district only. So, the outcomes of this study are ought to be assessed and generalised accordingly. The emotional intelligence dimensions as specified in mixed model were used for measuring emotional intelligence.
Future studies can be done with larger sample size either by choosing respondents from various streams in higher education sector or by expanding the geographical coverage of institutions. The other models of emotional intelligence such as ability model and trait model can be applied in the study. A comparative study between government college teachers and self-financing college teachers can also be done. The role of socio-demographic variables in determining emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behaviour can be done. Apart from education sector, any other service sector can also be considered for the study.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.
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